From The World according to Vissie
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My config

Key bindings may be changed with the bind and unbind commands in tmux.conf. For example, the default prefix binding of Ctrl-b can be changed to Ctrl-a by adding the following commands in your configuration file:

unbind C-b
set -g prefix C-a
bind C-a send-prefix

Sane Split Commands Another thing I personally find quite difficult to remember is the pane splitting commands. I mean, seriously? " to split vertically and % to split horizontally? Who’s supposed to memorize that? I find it helpful to have the characters as a visual representation of the split, so I chose | and - for splitting panes:

# split panes using | and -
bind | split-window -h
bind - split-window -v
unbind '"'
unbind %
# switch panes using Alt-arrow without prefix
bind -n M-Left select-pane -L
bind -n M-Right select-pane -R
bind -n M-Up select-pane -U
bind -n M-Down select-pane -D

Once you are on tmux 2.1 (or later) you can activate the new mouse mode with a single command:

# Enable mouse mode (tmux 2.1 and above)
set -g mouse on
# use UTF8
set -g utf8
set-window-option -g utf8 on
# make tmux display things in 256 colors
set -g default-terminal "screen-256color"
# set scrollback history to 10000 (10k)
set -g history-limit 10000
# ----------------------
# set some pretty colors
# ----------------------
# set pane colors - hilight the active pane
set-option -g pane-border-fg colour235 #base02
set-option -g pane-active-border-fg colour240 #base01
# colorize messages in the command line
set-option -g message-bg black #base02
set-option -g message-fg brightred #orange
# Kill
bind q kill-window
bind Q kill-session

# force a reload of the config file
unbind r
bind r source-file ~/.tmux.conf
# start window numbering at 1 for easier switching
set -g base-index 1

Maybe look at some Plugins

Keyboard short-cuts

Ctrl+a "           — split pane horizontally.
Ctrl+a %           — split pane vertically.
Ctrl+a arrow key   — switch pane.
Ctrl+b PgUp/PgDown — Enable scrolling and copy mode. 

Session Management

tmux new -s session_name    — creates a new tmux session named session_name
tmux attach -t session_name — attaches to an existing tmux session named session_name
tmux switch -t session_name — switches to an existing session named session_name
tmux list-sessions          — lists existing tmux sessions
tmux detach (prefix + d)    — detach the currently attached session

One can write a bash script that when run, will create the default session and attach to it. Then you can execute it from a terminal to get the pre-designed configuration in that terminal

tmux new-session -d -n WindowName Command
tmux new-window -n NewWindowName
tmux split-window -v
tmux selectp -t 1
tmux split-window -h
tmux selectw -t 1
tmux -2 attach-session -d

Status bar examples

If you want to know how to format time, have a look at: 

Example 1

## Appearance
# Status bar
set -g status-position bottom
set -g status-interval 4
set -g status-left 
set -g status-right 
set -g status-justify centre # center align window list
setw -g status-bg default
setw -g window-status-current-bg default
setw -g window-status-current-fg default
setw -g window-status-bg default
setw -g window-status-fg white
setw -g window-status-format '#[bg=black]#[fg=black,bold] #I #[bg=default] #[fg=black]#W  '
setw -g window-status-current-format '#[fg=white]#[bg=cyan] #I #[fg=cyan]#[bg=default] #W  '
# Panel borders
set -g pane-active-border-fg cyan
set -g pane-active-border-bg default
set -g pane-border-fg black
set -g pane-border-bg default
# Message text
set-option -g message-bg default
set-option -g message-fg default

Example 2

# Status
set -g status-left 
set -g status-right '#[fg=colour176,bold,bg=colour236,bold] %B #[fg=colour146,bold,bg=colour236,bold]%d, #[fg=colour173,bold,bg=colour236,bold]%Y#[fg=default] #[fg=colour234,bold,bg=colour12,bold] %R '
set -g status-right-length 100
set -g status-bg default
setw -g window-status-format '#[fg=colour236,bold,bg=colour180,bold] #I #[fg=colour180,bold,bg=colour236,bold] #W '
setw -g window-status-current-format '#[fg=colour180,bold,bg=colour236,bold] #I #[fg=colour236,bold,bg=colour180,bold] #W '

Example 3

Issue resolution

I could still see the tmux process was running (ps aux | grep tmux) but for some reason tmux commands would not work to list the existing sessions. Apparently it wasn't finding the existing Unix socket of the still-running tmux process. The fix in this scenario is to locate the existing Unix socket and specify that to tmux using the -S flag; here's how:

You can find the PID of your still-running tmux process with this:

ps -p $(pidof tmux)

Now take your PID (in my case, 6876) and run this to list any open Unix sockets:

sudo lsof -Uap 6876

Hopefully you see output like this:

tmux    6876  abe    3u  unix 0x0000000000000000      0t0 408477 socket
tmux    6876  abe    4u  unix 0x0000000000000000      0t0 408478 socket
tmux    6876  abe    6u  unix 0x0000000000000000      0t0 408479 /tmp/tmux-1000/default

Now you can specify that existing Unix socket to your tmux command (using the -S flag), and you should be able to list-sessions and attach properly:

tmux -S /tmp/tmux-1000/default list-sessions
tmux -S /tmp/tmux-1000/default attach -t 0