USB (Universal Serial Bus) is a specification to establish communication between devices and a host controller (usually personal computers). USB is intended to replace many varieties of serial and parallel ports. USB can connect computer peripherals such as mice, keyboards, digital cameras, printers, personal media players, flash drives, and external hard drives. For many of those devices, USB has become the standard connection method. USB was designed for personal computers, but it has become commonplace on other devices such as smartphones, PDAs and video game consoles, and as a power cord between a device and an AC adapter plugged into a wall plug for charging. As of 2008[update], there are about 2 billion USB devices sold per year, and approximately 6 billion total sold to date.